In the United States, Catholic ethics directives apply to one in six hospital beds, and the prohibited procedures most often involve reproductive health, meaning they disproportionately impact women. And as The New Republic reported in 2016, Catholic ethics restrictions have even spread to secular hospitals through opaque sales and merger contracts that leave patients in the dark about what care is or isn’t available. According to new research published today by the Columbia Law School Public Rights/Private Conscience Project and Public Health Solutions, women of color like Bertram Roberts are even more likely to be treated at Catholic hospitals where religious doctrines dictate medical practices.