The gender divide is especially glaring when it comes to pain. According to a study published in the journal Academic Emergency Medicine, female ER patients wait longer than males to receive painkillers—a median time of 65 minutes, versus 49 for men—and are less likely to receive those drugs at all. In her new book, Doing Harm: The Truth About How Bad Medicine and Lazy Science Leave Women Dismissed, Misdiagnosed and Sick, journalist Maya Dusenbery describes a “trust gap”: the fact that women’s accounts of their symptoms are too often not believed.