The most common reason cited by respondents was that the added individual was the director of their laboratory. The second most common reason given was that the added individual was in a position of authority and could affect the scholar’s career – something that Dr Fong and Professor Wilhite said was “most disturbing”. Female academics were, on average, 38 per cent more likely than their male peers to have felt obliged to add an author to a manuscript, an issue that the report’s authors attributed to “the dearth of other females” in senior or leadership positions, leaving them with “fewer mentors to help navigate these political minefields”.
Of the thousands of research studies in the U.S. recruiting women right now, just a few dozen specifically include pregnant women. And while the other trials technically could enroll pregnant women — after meeting certain requirements — they often don’t. “It’s absolutely possible to do studies in pregnant women,” Dr. Catherine Spong, an obstetrician who is leading the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development task force. The task force will present its recommendations to the federal health department next year.
Of all of Stern’s achievements, perhaps her most lasting legacy is in the modern technology of the Pap test. She collaborated with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and Rosenthal, then the head cytopathologist at U.C.L.A, to apply NASA computer imaging technology to Pap screening. Stern developed a liquid-based sampling system to isolate and enrich the cervical epithelium, and helped define cellular criteria for computer programs. The work she did at JPL revolutionized Pap screening for cervical cancer, and her liquid-based sampling technique is still used in hospitals, laboratories, and clinics around the world.
Despite all of Clark’s accomplishments and pioneering work with children, Clark could not find an academic job. A “black female with a PhD in psychology was an unwanted anomaly in New York City in the early 1940s,” she wrote in her personal essay. Eventually, Clark stopped doing original research and utilized her knowledge of child development and race in social services. There was no organization that provided mental health services to black children in New York City, so she decided to fill that need herself.
While 82 percent of all American adults say it’s very important for women to have equal rights, Republicans are more likely than Democrats to say enough progress has been made to reach equality, though Democrats themselves are split on the issue depending on their level of education. Among different generations, millennial women are significantly more likely than others to say men have greater advantages than women.
In 2016, the EEOC released a comprehensive study of workplace harassment in the United States, which concluded that “anywhere from 25% to 85% of women report having experienced sexual harassment in the workplace.” It’s a strikingly wide gap, but one that is very substantial even in its most conservative estimate — statistically predicting one in four people are affected by workplace sexual harassment.