“Even with the individual and general sexism in the history of philosophy, Harriet Taylor Mill would probably not have drawn quite so much ire if she had just ‘behaved herself'. But Harriet refused to play the role of the traditional Victorian subservient ‘lady.’ She asked questions that irritated and provoked nearly everyone but John Stuart Mill.”
In 1776, New Jersey’s new constitution defined voters as adult inhabitants who had lived in the state for a year and were “worth fifty pounds” or more. For women, this essentially meant the unmarried, since a woman’s property became her husband’s on marriage. This stands in contrast with other state constitutions that specified voters as “male person,” “male inhabitant,” “man,” “freeman,” “white male inhabitants,” and “free white man.”
The Russian intelligentsia was a unique cultural movement, made up of people from across Russian society who were united by that thirst for knowledge and passion for living out the full consequences of their ideas—whatever the consequences. One of those ideas was the emancipation of women. For the nineteenth century, especially in the context of Russia’s patriarchal autocracy, the intelligentsia was surprisingly feminist. Even girls’ secondary schools were hives of radicalism, long before the 1917 revolutions.
Public option held that too much exercise could lead to women who were too “masculine.” One of the early players in the British Ladies’ Football Club, a Miss Gilbert, was called “Tommy” or “Little Tommy” by the crowd and press because of her gender ambiguity—many were sure she must be a boy because she played too well for a female.